Gemba Walks: What it is, How to do it & Benefits

Gemba Walk

What is a Gemba Walk?

A gemba walk (pronunciation: GHEM-buh) is the act of physically going to the place where the value is added in a Lean construction process to identify areas for improvement. During a gemba walk, one talks to the people producing value for the project to determine where the value is focused and where there are wastes that can be eliminated in the process.

Gemba Walk Definition

The Lean Construction Institute defines gemba as the Japanese term for “where the value is added or where the work takes place.” To “go to the gemba” is to physically observe the value add taking place.


How to Gemba Walk

Performing the gemba walk itself should not be a wasteful activity. Ensure that you’re equipped for the job by following these steps.

1. Plan Ahead

Plan a set of questions to ask when going on the gemba walk. Write them out to ensure the questions are varied and that they hit on all facets of the workflow. Inform your work team that you will be coming and let them know what a gemba walk is so the walk does not interrupt their workflow.

2. Analyze the Process, Not the People

A gemba walk is not the time to critique a worker’s individual productivity level. It is a time for determining the efficiency of the process itself. Similarly, a gemba walk is a time for making observations rather than influencing the process in the moment. Write down the observations you make and relay them to the team after you have left and formulated a plan for proceeding.

3. Go With the Flow

Follow the value stream in sequential order. Doing this will make it much easier to determine sources of waste and areas for improvement. Take the team members with you so they can view the value stream using fresh eyes and talk to them as you advance through the stream.

4. Follow Up

Return to the site for a follow-up walk after providing time for the team to implement the changes you’ve outlined. Arrive on a different day to ensure that the value stream is consistent throughout different times of the day and days of the week.

seven steps of a gemba walk infographic

Gemba Walk Benefits

Lean experts encourage “going to the gemba” to see how things are really done and where there is an opportunity to eliminate or reduce waste.

The 3 P’s of Gemba

When performing a gemba walk, it is important to remember the “3 P’s of gemba” to help guide the process. The 3 P’s of gemba are Purpose, Process, and People.


During a gemba walk, one should seek to fully understand the purpose of the work being done.

Is each person involved in the process adding to the value stream? Do the people doing the work understand what they’re doing and why? Are the working standards up to par with expectations? These are just some questions that can be asked regarding “purpose” during the gemba walk.


In Lean methodology, constantly analyzing the process is paramount to ensuring a system of continuous improvement. Does the work flow properly or is there wasted time where workers are relying on others to complete tasks? Is the process utilizing pull properly? The process identifies areas for improvement in the workflow itself.


The people are the ones that make or break any Lean process. During a gemba walk, it’s imperative to discover whether there is buy-in and trust between the workers on the project. Interact with the people on the job at all levels of operation and ask them questions about what they’re doing and why they’re doing it. Foster an environment where sharing is encouraged and where anyone can step up to become a leader.

gemba walk training at LCI Congress

Gemba Walk Training

Gemba training at LCI Congress is a 55-minute presentation, reinforced by custom videos and interactive group discussions, that explains how to perform a Gemba Walk and provides attendees with a basic understanding of continuous improvement.

Photo by Jose Felsmann, Southland Industries, via the LCI Congress event app

Safety Gemba Walk

A safety gemba walk is a process of physically observing the safety measures of a project happening in real time and determining areas for improvement in employee safety. The difference between a regular gemba walk and a safety walk is that a safety walk is focused chiefly on the workplace safety of the job.

Since one of the main principles behind Lean methods is improving the safety of employees and eliminating workplace injuries where possible, fostering a safety culture through Lean safety gemba walks is crucial.

Get Lean Topics at Your Jobsite

You can enhance your job site with a Lean Construction Institute poster! These helpful visuals explain and guide your team through important Lean concepts. The posters are printer ready and can be scaled to your desired dimensions. Print downloads are available as a member benefit to LCI Corporate Members, otherwise are available for purchase.

Jobsite Posters

Gemba Walk Questions

When preparing a set of questions for a gemba walk, it’s important to eliminate any yes-or-no questions. More productive questions start with “what,” “why,” or “how?” The purpose is to facilitate conversation and identify wasteful activities within the standard work flow.

In this particular project, a lot of different trades are involved in completing the project. During the gemba walk, it’s important to analyze the workflow and how one trade hands off to the other. Does the process increase efficiency and decrease rework requests?

Gemba Walks: Learning More

The Lean Construction Institute is committed to transforming the design and construction industry by providing educational resources, conducting surveys and research, and facilitating local and national Lean events. It is only through the power of the LCI Corporate Members that LCI is able to offer the supplementary resources below. 


gemba template preview of pdf download
Template: Gemba Walk Questions
Everything you need to conduct a Gemba walk in construction including the 3 Ps and questions to ask. Download this 1-page document to use in your Lean practice.
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Field Crew Huddle
Explore the Field Crew Huddle Website to better understand the application and real-world benefits of a gemba walk.
Trade Partners Handbook of Production Improvement Methods
This handbook was developed as a resource. The content is intended as a user guide with practical resources, lessons learned by others, examples, and guidance to allow trade contractors and specialty construction firms operating to adopt lean principles and reap the workforce and business benefits that follow more readily.
Download Now
eLearning Courses
Introduction to Lean Project Delivery
Gain insight to Lean Project Delivery (LPD) by understanding how the Lean System connects People, Principles, and Practices to optimize results by shifting both mindset and behaviors. The key achievable goal of this course is to prepare and enable team members with a foundational understanding of Lean approaches for daily use within a project environment.
Learn more
Introduction to the Last Planner System®
This course will allow you to gain in-depth insight to the practical application of the Last Planner® System (LPS) through multimedia, hands-on interactions, diagrams, worksheets, and more. The key achievable goal of this course is to learn how to engage at all five levels of LPS effectively on a day-to-day basis with a team implementing the system.
Learn more
Effective Big Room
Gain a foundational understanding of the concept of a Big Room by learning the benefits, purpose, and implementation considerations. Understanding how to improve collaboration and drive transparency within your team. Identifying venue types, set up, and activities that work best for your projects. Learning how to effectively advance work and learning to support the success of future projects.
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Lean In The Design Phase
Gain insight to Lean approaches and tools relative to the design phase of project delivery to optimize team communication, collaboration and results. Understand how a Lean strategy can drive innovative solutions by connecting People, Principles and Practices. The key achievable goal of this course is to prepare and enable team members with a foundational understanding of Lean approaches for daily use within the design phase of a project.
Learn More
Last Planner System® In Design
Gain a foundational understanding of implementing Last Planner System® (LPS®) during the design (pre-construction) phases of a project. Identify the essential foundational principles of the five conversations of LPS, gain practical application insight for each, and access key action guidelines.
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Target Value Delivery
Gain an understanding of Target Value Delivery (TVD) by identifying the different phases and components that make up the delivery approach. Discover how the Lean components interact together to improve the process and outcome of the project.
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LCI Publications
Transforming Design and Construction: A Framework for Change

William R. (Bill) Seed, Executive Editor

A diverse set of practitioners collaborated to create the Transforming Design and Construction: A Framework for Change book based on the transformative projects and experiences of their Lean practices. The papers, presented in short chapter format, are intended to encourage discussion, learning and experimentation individually or with a team. Read the first and most popular book in LCI’s Transforming Design and Construction series to gain a high-level understanding of various Lean principles, strategies and methods.
Target Value Delivery: Practitioner Guidebook to Implementation

Executive Editors: Kristin Hill, Katherine Copeland and Christian Pikel

Target Value Delivery: Practitioner Guidebook to Implementation was collaboratively written by a team of more than 20 Target Value Delivery (TVD) practitioners to provide current state practical guidance to implementing TVD with a project team. This guidebook portrays TVD as an umbrella over Target Value Production for construction and Target Value Design by taking a broader approach rather than focusing only on the design phase. Read LCI’s second book in the Transforming Design and Construction series to gain practical insight to current practices for implementing Target Value Delivery on any project.